Bada Valley or Napu Valley, located in the Lore Lindu National Park in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, contains hundreds of megaliths going back to the 14th century. The purpose of the megaliths and their builders are unknown.

Lore Lindu National Park Lore
Lindu National Park is a protected area of forest on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, in the province of Central Sulawesi. The Indonesian national park is 2,180 km² covering both lowland and montane forests (200 to 2,610 meters above mean sea level). It provides habitat to numerous rare species, including 77 bird species endemic to Sulawesi. The national park is designated as part of the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves. In addition to its rich wildlife, the park also contains megaliths dating from before 1300 AD

The easiest access to visit the national park is from Palu to Kamarora (50 kilometers in 2.5 hours drive). Due to a lot of rainfall up to 4,000 mm a year in the southern part of the national park, the best time to visit is from July to September.

Geography and climate
The boundaries of the park are defined by the Palolo Valley to the north, Napu Valley to the east and Bada Valley to the south. The western boundary is formed by a series of narrow valleys, known collectively as the Kulawi Valley. The Palolo, Napu, Lindu and Besoa Valleys were once lakes, now partially filled with sediment. Lake Lindu (Danau Lindu) is the only large lake remaining today. The altitude ranges from 200 to 2,500 m above sea-level.

The climate is tropical with high humidity. Temperatures vary only a few degrees over the course of the year, between 26°C–32°C in lowland areas. The temperature drops in the highland areas about 6°C (11°F) with every 1,100 metres (3,600 ft) rise in altitude. The heaviest rain period occurs during the monsoon which lasts from November to April

Flora and fauna
Lore Lindu National Park stretches over multiple ecosystem types, including lowland tropical forest, sub-montane forest, montane forest, as well as sub-alpine forest at altitudes over 2,000 metres (6,600 ft).

Plant species include Eucalyptus deglupta, Pterospermum celebicum, Cananga odorata, Gnetum gnemon, Castanopsis argentea, Agathis philippinensis, Phyllocladus hypophyllus, medicinal plants, and rattans.

Endemic Sulawesi mammals found in the national park include the Tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana), North Sulawesi babirusa (Babyrousa celebensis), pygmy tarsier (Tarsius pumilus), Dian's tarsier (Tarsius dianae), Sulawesi bear cuscus (Ailurops ursinus), Sulawesi dwarf cuscus (Strigocuscus celebensis), Celebes rat (Taeromys celebensis), Sulawesi palm civet (Macrogalidia musschenbroekii) and Sulawesi stripe-faced fruit bat (Styloctenium wallacei). Endemic Sulawesi birds found in Lore Lindu include the maleo (Macrocephalon maleo), purple-bearded bee-eater (Meropogon forsteni), geomalia (Geomalia heinrichi), and many others. Reptiles and amphibians include the gold snake (Elaphe erythrura and E. janseni) and Sulawesian toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis). The fish Oryzias bonneorum and Oryzias sarasinorum, and the Parathelphusid crab Parathelphusa linduensis are endemic to Lake Lindu

Megaliths
There are over 400 granite megaliths in the area, of which about 30 represent human forms. They vary in size from a few centimetres to ca.4.5 metres (15 ft). The original purpose of the megaliths is unknown. Other megaliths are in form of large pots (Kalamba) and stone plates (Tutu'na). The megaliths spread in Napu Valley, Besoa and Bada.[9] Various archaeological studies have dated the carvings from between 3000 BC to 1300 AD.

The Megaliths Of Lore Lindu, Megalithic statues that are hundreds, if not thousands of years old, dot Bada Valley, Besoa and Napu are considered to be the finest stone monuments of their type in Indonesia. The origin of these massive, well-worked, yet elegantly simple, granite carvings has been lost over time as they pre-date the existing ethnic groups found around the park. Various archaeological studies date them as early 3.000 BC or as recently as 1.300 AD. They are believed to relate to ancestor worship. The tallest megalith stands at a height of over 4 meters, but most are 1,5 – 2,5 meters tall. Culture of Lore Lindu, There are seven closely related ethnic groups living in and around the park.

A century ago these people lived in small warring clans practicing shifting agriculture. Today, they have a settled village life farming rice in the valleys around the park. These communities use the forest as a source of resources for trade and cash, but do not have any cultural or spiritual attachment to it. The majority of the indigenous people around the park is Christian and has been under missionary influence since the turn of the century. Traditional bark cloth called Kain Kulit Kayu is still made in the Bada Kulawi Valleys. Music played on bamboo instruments, and traditional dances are a part of wedding ceremonies and other important celebrations in most of the valley.

Human habitation
Surrounding the park there are 117 villages, from which 62 are located on the borders of the park and one is within the park. The local population belongs to the Kaili, Kulavi and Lore ethnic groups. There are also immigrants from South Sulawesi, Java and Bali.

Conservation and threats
Lore Lindu has been declared a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in 1978. The national park was formed through the amalgamation of three existing reserves: the Lore Kalamanta Nature Reserve, the Lake Lindu Recreation and Protection Forest, and the Lore Lindu Wildlife Reserve.[6] While in 1982 an area of 2,310 km² has been "declared" for the national park, when the park has been officially designated in 1999, its size was reduced to 2,180 km².

Deforestation as result of illegal logging and land encroachment for agricultural activities is one of the main threats to the park. Management challenges include lack of awareness of the importance of forest preservation and lack of law enforcement.

Since 2000, the Indonesian-German Collaborative Research Center "STORMA" (Stability of the Rainforest Margin in Indonesia) is intensively investigating Lore Lindu National Park and its buffer zone. STORMA's analysis of the effect of environmental protection on the level of deforestation in the park, suggests a reduction of the deforestation rate of around 9% as result of the protected areas status of the park. This estimate was based on a methodology involving propensity score matching rather than the conventional satellite image comparison.

Itinerary:
Day 01: Palu ariival – Tentena
From Palu airport, direct overland to Tentena takes about 8 hours driving

Day 02: Tentena - Bada Valley
At 8 am, after b`fast, we drive to Bada Valley takes about 4 hours drive, check in at Ningsih Homestay and after lucnh start your megaliths tour visits to a huge megalith of Sulawesi in Sepe area called Palindo. Located in savannah and flat 7 km from your home stay, walk crossing hanging bridge and through cocoa plantations and rice fields. From Palindo megalith, continue hikes towards Maturu, Crown, Kalambas and Oba megalith. Lunch will be on the way. After lunch continue hiking to the main road where a jeep will pick us up for transfer to visit Tinoe, traditional bark clothes processing then to Baula megaliths. From Baula, by jeep drive back to Bomba village where the home stays is located. On the way we stop at Tarai Roi and Ari Ipohi megalith. Dinner and stay overnight at Ningsih home stay.

Day 03: Bada Valley - Puncak Tamahingki (Jungle trekking)
Today after b`fast, with porter and ranger you will start your real adventure trekking towards Besoa Valley by way of pure jungle of Lore Lindu National Park. First about 4 hours is climbing through tropical rain forest. Total time (some times) we spend about 6 hours to reach to the place where we will stay overnight in a hut in the jungle. Guide and ranger will prepare lunch box. Dinner and stay overnight in a hut. (Elevation is between 1500-2000 meters above sea level).

Day 04: Puncak (Hill) - Besoa Valley (Doda village).
Continue your jungle trek to Besoa Valley through tropical rainforest. Today, the trek mostly going down towards Besoa Valley, which spend about 7 - 8 hours. Sometimes you could see a group of Sulawesi macacas, horn bills (rhyticeros cassidix) and sulawesi serpent eagle (spilornis rufipectus). Upon arrival at open area before Doda village you will be surprise to see a spectacular panorama of Besoa Valley. Arrive in the afternoon in Doda village. Check in at Rezky home stay. Dinner at your home stay.

Day 05: Besoa Valley Tour
Morning after b`fast, start your exploration around Besoa Valley visits to Tadulako megalith. Just about 3 kms behind Doda village, walk through rice fields and a few savannah. Tadulako is located up the hill. From Tadulako, continue hikes to Pokekea area (about 7 kms from Tadulako megalith.You will walk through villages and ricefields. Lunch will be done at Pokekea area. Pokekea is a group of megaliths where you could many different type and shape of megaliths. From Pokekea, you will proceed by car to visit a pregnance megalith behind the village before go back to your homestay. Dinner at your home stay.

Day 06: Besoa Valley - Palu.
Overland to Palu city via Napu Valley. On the way we stop at Watutau megaliths, Wanga and Tamadue megalith. These three megaliths are located in Napu Valley. Then continue drive to Palu city. Lunch will be on the way. After about 8 - 9 hours drive including stops, you will reach Palu city, capital town of Central Sulawesi. Check in at hotel Dinner out side of the hotel.

Day 07: Palu-Airport
Free until transfer to Mutiara Airport, Palu

Rate:  USD 790/person, Minimum 2 person

Rate included:
- Airport pick up and transfer in Palu
- Air condition vehicle
- 3 meals a day
- English speaking guide
- Porters
- Accommodation as per itinerary
- Refreshment ( Mineral water, coffee and teas )
- Local guide
- Trekking equipments

Rate excluded:
- Return air tickets
- Alcoholic and non alcoholic drinks
- Tipping
- Laundry
- Any personal expenses

What you should bring:
Camera, Light jacket, Sunscreen, Sun hat and sun glasses, Toilet paper wet and dry,Personal medicine, Small amount of money, Flashlight, Personal hygiene items e.g. tampons, etc, Light fleece or sweater, Towel (for the 2nd day, Spare T-shirt, Warm hat for evening, morning and summit, Tiger Balm or muscle spray for muscle pain, Swimming wears if you intend to swim on the lake Poso and Saluopa Waterfall, Long pants and shorts, Gloves, mosquito repellent.




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